Unemployment benefits (Paro)- Guide
If you lost your job in Spain, there are a series of steps you can take to make sure you are protected during your job search period. The Spanish Social Security system can provide you with an unemployment benefit which will vary depending on how much you have worked and contributed to Social Security.
What should I do if I just got unemployed? The first and most important thing to do once you are unemployed, is to sign up with the Servicio Público de Empleo Estatal (SEPE) as a job seeker. This is a necessary requisite to apply for your unemployment benefit if you are entitled to one, and also it will add you to the SEPE’s job centre. To register as a job seeker you will need an appointment with the closest SEPE office (also known as Oficina de Empleo). You can get the appointment through this website or by calling the phone number 901 010 210. This procedure needs to be done in person. Types of benefits and subsidies The SEPE offers many different types of benefits, but in this guide we will cover the most common ones. If your case falls out of the scope of this guide, we recommend seeking advice at a specialised site or to consult with your former employer and HR department. Contributory Unemployment Benefit (Solicitud de prestación contributiva) You are entitled to claim this benefit if it is the first time you are unemployed, or if having requested it previously, you’ve regained the right to claim the benefit. This benefit will grant you protection in a situation of involuntary unemployment by providing you with a monthly income during a determined period of time, based on your quotation to the Social Security system when you were employed, and therefore being a contributory unemployment benefit. The requirements to access the benefit are the following:
Being unemployed and registered as a job seeker in the SEPE’s job centre
Being subscribed to Social Security (alta)
Having a minimum period of quotation (cotización) of 360 days in the past 6 years, or since you received the last contributory unemployment benefit.
Not having reached the retirement age
Unemployment subsidy You can access this benefit if you have been unemployed for a long time and if your contributory unemployment benefit has expired. Unlike the contributory unemployment benefit, you are entitled to this benefit if:
You are unemployed, registered as a job seeker at the SEPE’s job centre and accepted a commitment of activity.
Not being entitled to receive a contributory unemployment benefit.
Lack of income, of any kind and on a monthly basis is less than the 75% of the minimum income (Salario Mínimo Interprofesional).
*If you are over 52 years of age, read also the benefit listed below. Unemployment subsidy for people over 52 years old Unlike the unemployment subsidy, you are entitled to this benefit if:
You are unemployed and registered as a job seeker at the SEPE’s job centre within a month after your contributory unemployment benefit has expired and accepted a commitment of activity (justified causes that break the commitment will be considered). If you accept a job offer with a length of 12 months or less, this initial month will freeze until your contract is finished.
Being 52 years of age or older when the contributory unemployment benefit or unemployment subsidy expired.
Complying with all the requirements, except the age, to access the retirement contributory unemployment benefit (pensión contributiva de jubilación) provided by the Spanish Social Security system
Having contributed to the unemployment fund for at least 6 years during your life.
Being included in one of the following assumptions:
Your contributory unemployment benefit has expired
You migrated back to Spain and you are not entitled to a contributory unemployment benefit
You have been released from prison after 6 months or more, and are not entitled to a contributory unemployment benefit
After recovering from a situation of total/permanent disability you have been declared fully capable or partially disabled
Being legally unemployed and not being entitled to the contributory unemployment benefit due to insufficient quotation (less than 12 months, but more than 3 months)
If you worked in a foreign country:
If within the EU, EEA, Australia or Switzerland, you will have to provide your quotations in the country you worked (E-301 form or equivalent).
This subsidy will last until you can access the retirement contributory pension scheme. Active insertion benefit (Renta Activa de Inserción or RAI) If you are unemployed and aren’t entitled to the contributory unemployment benefit or the unemployment subsidy, you can request the RAI. This benefit is specifically aimed at any of the following collectives:
Long term unemployed
Returned migrant workers
Victims of domestic violence
In general terms, to access the RAI the applicant will need to comply with the following requisites:
Being under 65
Not being entitled to any other contributory or unemployment subsidy.
Lack of income, of any kind and on a monthly basis is less than the 75% of the minimum income (Salario Mínimo Interprofesional). This amount should be calculated dividing the family income among its members. In the case of victims of domestic violence, the income of their partners won’t be taken into account.
Not receiving economic subsidies or benefits which are incompatible with a professional activity.
To not perceive a non-contributory disability benefit, and if you do, suspend it while receiving the RAI.
Depending on whether you are a long term unemployed, disabled, returned migrant or victim of domestic violence, there are an extra set of requisites to apply for the RAI. You can check them at this website. Applying for the unemployment benefits Due to the current COVID-19 restrictions, it is possible to formalise a provisional application online by sending an online form to the SEPE. In case further information or documentation is required, the SEPE may contact you by phone or e-mail. If you have a Digital Certificate or Cl@ve, you can also present your application through this website. You will need to select the benefit you want to apply for in the menu and follow the instructions in your screen.